Ship squat occurs due to Bernoulli’s principle and the conservation of mass. When a ship moves through the water, it creates a low-pressure area under the ship’s hull, and the water is pulled toward this low-pressure area. This causes a depression or a hole in the water surface, and the water level drops in this area.
The displaced water rushes back towards the depression behind the ship, and this causes a high-pressure area to form, which pushes the ship upwards. This force is called the “upward force of buoyancy.”
At the same time, the water flowing under the ship has a higher velocity, which reduces the pressure in the area immediately under the ship, resulting in the hull sinking lower in the water. This is known as the “squatting effect.”
The amount of squatting depends on various factors such as the speed of the ship, the depth of water, the shape and size of the hull, and the characteristics of the water such as density and viscosity.
In general, the faster a ship moves through the water, the greater the squatting effect. The depth of water also plays an important role as shallow water increases the velocity of the water flow, resulting in a more significant squatting effect. The shape and size of the hull also affect squatting, as a wider and flatter hull will cause more squatting than a narrow and sleek hull.