To ensure safety during the maintenance of batteries and UPS equipment, the following precautions should be taken:
- Battery acid is corrosive and can cause severe burns, so appropriate personal protective equipment is essential.
- Batteries emit flammable hydrogen gas during charge and discharge cycles, which can cause explosions if allowed to accumulate. Room ventilation should be checked and sparking from battery terminals should be avoided.
- Batteries can cause electrical shock if connected improperly or short-circuited. Caution must be exercised when using metallic tools or conductors, and jewelry should be removed. Voltmeters should be used to verify correct polarity and expected voltage levels.
- Battery cells are heavy and can cause injury during maintenance. Safe lifting techniques should be used and batteries should not be stopped if they slide out of the equipment.
Regarding lead acid batteries, overcharging can cause buckling of plates, internal short circuits, sludge formation, lower capacity, and may ruin the battery.
Undercharging can cause over-discharging, pale brown or yellowish positive plates, almost white negative plates, falling voltage, specific gravity, and depolarization, which decreases current flow.
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